Qu yuan - apologiseBitte geben Sie eine Stückzahl von mindestens 1 ein. Uralt ist dieser Brauch der Freundschaftstreffen zwischen verschiedenen Dörfern, bei denen Geselligkeit und Zusammengehörigkeitsgefühl fast wichtiger sind als der Wettkampf. Der Duft sollte erfrischen und Insekten fernhalten. Er begann dabei mit seinem vertrauten Berater Yuan. Aus dieser Verehrung sind viele Gedenkfeierlichkeiten entstanden.
While traveling, he wrote a poem describing the similar fate of a previous "Qu Yuan. In his exile , he spent much of this time collecting legends and rearranging folk odes while traveling the countryside.
Furthermore, he wrote some of the greatest poetry in Chinese literature and expressed deep concerns about his state.
During his depression, he would often take walks near a certain well to look upon his thin and gaunt reflection in the water.
This well became known as the "Face Reflection Well. The reason why he took his life remained controversial and was argued by Chinese scholars for centuries.
Typical explanations including martyrdom for his deeply beloved but falling motherland, which was suggested by the philosopher Zhu Xi of Song Dynasty, or feeling extreme despair to the situation of the politics in Chu while his lifelong political dream would never be realized.
But according to Yu Fu , widely considered to be written by Qu himself or at least, a person who was very familiar with Qu, his suicide was an ultimate way to protect his innocence and life principles.
Qu Yuan is regarded as the first author of verse in China to have his name associated to his work, since prior to that time, poetic works were not attributed to any specific authors.
He is considered to have initiated the so-called sao style of verse, which is named after his work Li Sao , in which he abandoned the classic four-character verses used in poems of Shi Jing and adopted verses with varying lengths.
This resulted in poems with more rhythm and latitude in expression. Qu Yuan is also regarded as one of the most prominent figures of Romanticism in Chinese classical literature, and his masterpieces influenced some of the greatest Romanticist poets in Tang Dynasty such as Li Bai.
During the Han Dynasty , Qu Yuan became established as a heroic example of how a scholar and official who was denied public recognition suitable to their worth should behave.
Chu was located in what is now the Yangzi River area of central China. At this time, Chu represented the southern fringe of the Chinese cultural area, having for a time been part of both the Shang dynasty and the Zhou dynasty empires; however, the Chu culture also retained certain characteristics of local traditions such as shamanism , the influence of which can be seen in the Chu Ci.
The Chu Ci was compiled and annotated by Wang Yi died AD , which is the source of transmission of these poems and any reliable information about them to subsequent times; thus, the role which Qu Yuan had in the authoring, editing, or retouching of these works remains unclear.
Following his suicide, Qu Yuan was sometimes revered as a water god , including by Taiwanese Taoists , who number him among the Kings of the Water Immortals.
Popular legend has it that villagers carried their dumplings and boats to the middle of the river and desperately tried to save Qu Yuan after he immersed himself in the Miluo but were too late to do so.
However, the legend continues, that late one night, the spirit of Qu Yuan appeared before his friends and told them that he died because he had taken himself under the river.
Then, he asked his friends to wrap their rice into three-cornered silk packages to ward off the dragon. These packages became a traditional food known as zongzi , although the lumps of rice are now wrapped in leaves instead of silk.
The act of racing to search for his body in boats gradually became the cultural tradition of dragon boat racing, held on the anniversary of his death every year.
The countries around China, such as Vietnam and Korea, also celebrate variations of this Dragon Boat Festival as part of their shared cultural heritage.
A Chinese form of shamanism was prominent in Chu, and a large number of the Chu Ci verses describe "spirit journeys".
However, southern influence was extremely insignificant, only limited to the ideas of shamanism and burial objects were from the south, other than that literature, poetry, clothing and architecture all remained northern.
The collection of poems by Qu Yuan and Song Yu included in Chu Ci , as well as works by other Chu poets or poets writing in the Chu style , represent a certain development of an older tradition which eventually achieved a period of popularity and imperial favor during the Western Han Dynasty.
The Book of Han noted Chu poets with 1, compositions. Many established Han poets also wrote in the chu ci style, producing their fair share of notable poems: Other chu ci style verses were written, including some which survive, but are not generally included in the standard anthology.
Wang Yi made an extensive commentary on the Chu Ci , as well as appending his own " Nine Longings ", as the seventeenth and final section. Although Chu Ci is an anthology of poems by many poets, Qu Yuan was its central figure, both as author of the seminally important Li sao section and in the persona of protagonist.
There are various other authors which are also thought to have written various sections of the Chu Ci , as well as some sections which may derive from some traditional source.
Various scholarly sources propose solutions for who wrote what, in the Chu Ci , with more doubt or questions about some sections than others.
Besides the actual authorship of the diverse material of the Chu Ci , another scholarly concern is in regard to the history of who and when these pieces were collected and anthologized into one work, and also what other editorial work was done.
Besides the authorship of the actual content, much commentary has been written in regard to the Chu Ci , some of which is traditionally incorporated into the printed editions.
The name "Qu Yuan" does not occur in any text prior to the Han dynasty. During his days of exile, Qu Yuan is thought to have written Li Sao , his magnum opus and the first and centrally important piece of Chu Ci.
The authorship, as in many a case of ancient literature, can be neither confirmed nor denied. A Study of Shamanism in Ancient China. The traditional view of the Chu ci , which went largely unchallenged until the 20th century, was that Qu Yuan wrote about half of the pieces in the Chu ci , with the other half being ascribed to other poets associated with him or writing in his style.
There are questions or uncertainties as to how the Chu Ci came to be collected into its present form; however, at least some outlines of this historical process have been presented in scholarly literature.
Another important aspect of Chu Ci studies is the editorial history. One regard is the order in which the various titles appear. There are also reasons to believe that some of the sections juan were subject to editing for various reasons, including to suit the verses to theatrical performance and due to the nature of the textual process of ancient China, involving writing lines of text on individual bamboo strips which were bound together, but when the bindings broke were subject to editorial decisions as to what their original order was.
One of the important aspects of the Chu Ci is the body of commentary in this regard. Much of the initial surviving annotation of the standard editions of the Chuci was provided by Wang Yi , the Han Dynasty royal librarian.
The Chu Ci consists of seventeen main sections, in standard versions, with some accompanying commentary standard. Critics historically often interpret Li Sao as political allegory, yet religious and mythological aspects arise, which derive from the culture of Chu.
The second section, in standard modern order, the "Nine Songs" " Jiu Ge " , despite the "Nine" in the title, actually includes eleven discrete parts or songs.
These seem to represent some shamanistic dramatic practices of the Yangzi River valley area involving the invocation of divine beings and seeking their blessings by means of a process of courtship.
In general, the text of the Heavenly Questions asks questions; but, the text does not include answers, except, in some cases, in hints.
However, both the city of Ying and the entire state of Chu itself experienced doom due to the expansion of the state of Qin , which ended up consolidating China at the expense of the other former independent states: The poems and pieces of the Chu Ci anthology vary, in formal poetic style.
Chu Ci includes varying metrics, varying use of exclamatory particles, and the varying presence of the luan or, envoi.
Some Chuci poems use the typical Book of Songs Shijing four syllable line, with its four equally stressed syllables:. This is sometimes varied by the use of a pronoun or nonce word in the fourth or final place, in alternate lines, thus weakening the stress of the fourth syllable of the even lines:.
Generally, the Shijing style both in Shijing and in Chuci groups these lines into rhymed quatrains. Thus, the standard building block of the Song style poetry is a quatrain with a heavy, thumping sound quality:.
The variant song style verse one type of "7-plus" used seven stressed or accented syllables followed by an unstressed or weakly accented final syllable on alternate even lines:.
The "Great Summons" and the "Summons for the Soul" poetic form the other kind of "7-plus" varies from this pattern by uniformly using a standard nonce word refrain throughout a given piece, and that alternating stressed and unstressed syllable finals to the lines has become the standard verse form.
The nonce word used as a single-syllable refrain in various ancient Chinese classical poems varies: Any one of these unstressed nonce words seem to find a similar role in the prosody.
This two line combo:. Within the individual songs or poems of the "Nine Pieces", lines generally consist of various numbers of syllables, separated by the nonce word.
Some verses tend towards the sao style, based on imitation of the "Li sao". The sao style features long line lengths optimized for poetic oral recitation, with a concluding luan or, envoi.
The scholar and translator David Hawkes divides the verses of what seem to be of the earlier pre-Han era , into two types, each type being characterized by one of two characteristic metrical forms with the exception of the mixed poetry and prose narratives of the " Divination " and of " The Fisherman ".
Furthermore, the verses of the Chu Ci would have been recited using distinctive linguistic features of the Chu version of Chinese language , together with various rare characters, which together with some of the vocabulary and the characters themselves also vary from the typical northern literature; thus, the poems of the Chu Ci remain as a major factor in the study of Classical Chinese poetry, cultural, and linguistic history, and the various poems or prose-poems influenced subsequent literature, including other poetry of the Han Dynasty , and subsequent Classical Chinese poetry.
Not only have the various poems or prose-poems influenced subsequent literature, but the contents of this material are a major primary source for historical information about the culture and religious beliefs in the territorial area of the former Kingdom of Chu.
More general religious or philosophical questions such as regarding the existence of soul or spirit receive some poetic treatment, in the Chu Ci.