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Sept. Niemcy U David Strelec, Strzał z lewej nogi, 1. bramka w sezonie. Asysta: Tomas Nemcik, Podanie, 1. asysta w sezonie. Słowacja U Dez. Transformacja polityki energetycznej w Niemczech a wdrozenie energii Dania - ++ + + + Czechy ++ + - - + Słowacja ++ + + - + Węgry ++ + + - +. iCalendar Imieniny Niemcy - Kalendarz gregoriański | RSS Imieniny Niemcy - Kalendarz gregoriański | Druk aktualnej stróny. Styczeń | Luty | Marzec.

Polish jazz musicians such as Krzysztof Komeda created a unique style, which was most famous in the s and s and continues to be popular to this day.

Art in Poland has always reflected European trends while maintaining its unique character. Perhaps the most prominent and internationally admired Polish artist was Tamara de Lempicka , who specialized in the style of Art Deco and whose paintings are often collected by celebrities and well-known personas.

Prior to the 19th century only Daniel Schultz and Italian-born Marcello Bacciarelli had the privilege of being recognized abroad.

Within historically-orientated circles, Henryk Siemiradzki dominated with his monumental Academic Art and ancient Roman theme. Since the inter-war years, Polish art and documentary photography has enjoyed worldwide fame and in the s the Polish School of Posters was formed.

Although not Polish, the work had a strong influence on Polish culture and has been often associated with Polish identity.

Polish cities and towns reflect a whole spectrum of European architectural styles. Romanesque architecture is represented by St. Nonetheless, a number of ancient structures has survived: The centre of Kazimierz Dolny on the Vistula is a good example of a well-preserved medieval town.

The second half of the 17th century is marked by baroque architecture. The profuse decorations of the Branicki Palace in Warsaw are characteristic of the rococo style.

Traditional folk architecture in the villages and small towns scattered across the vast Polish countryside is characterized by its extensive use of wood as the primary building material.

Some of the best preserved and oldest structures include wooden churches , and tserkvas primarily located across southern Poland in the Beskids and Bieszczady regions of the Carpathian mountains.

Within Polish literary customs, it is appropriate to highlight the published works concerning Poland not written by ethnic Poles.

The most vivid example is Gallus Anonymus , a foreign monk and the first chronicler who described Poland and its territories.

The first documented phrase in the Polish language reads " Day ut ia pobrusa, a ti poziwai " "Let me grind, and you take a rest" , reflecting the culture of early Poland.

Most medieval records in Latin and the Old Polish language contain the oldest extant manuscript of fine Polish prose entitled the Holy Cross Sermons , as well as the earliest Polish-language bible, the so-called Bible of Queen Sophia.

A Polish writer who utilized Latin as his principal tool of expression was Klemens "Ianicius" Janicki , one of the most renowned Latin poets of his time, who was laureled by the Pope.

Throughout this period Poland also experienced the early stages of Protestant Reformation. During the Polish Baroque era, the Jesuits greatly influenced Polish literature and literary techniques, often relying on God and religious matters.

Jan Chryzostom Pasek , also a respected baroque writer, is mostly remembered for his tales and memoirs reflecting sarmatian culture in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

Nicholas Wisdom , which was a milestone for Polish literature. A Polish prose poet of the highest order, Joseph Conrad , the son of dramatist Apollo Korzeniowski , won worldwide fame with his English-language novels and stories that are informed with elements of the Polish national experience.

The history of Polish cinema is as long as history of cinematography itself. Over decades, Poland has produced outstanding directors, film producers, cartoonists and actors that achieved world fame, especially in Hollywood.

Moreover, Polish inventors played an important role in the development of world cinematography and modern-day television. In , Jan Szczepanik , obtained a British patent for his Telectroscope.

This prototype of television could easily transmit image and sound, thus allowing a live remote view. Following the invention of appropriate apparatus and technological development in the upcoming years, his then-impossible concept became reality.

Polish cinema developed rapidly in the interwar period. The most renowned star of the silent film era was Polish actress Pola Negri.

During this time, the Yiddish cinema also evolved in Poland. Films in the Yiddish language with Jewish themes, such as The Dybbuk , played an important part in pre-war Polish cinematography.

Poland has a number of major media outlets, chief among which are the national television channels. Poland has several hour news channels: Rzeczpospolita , founded in is one of the oldest newspapers still in operation in the country.

Poland has also emerged as a major hub for video game developers in Europe, with the country now being home to hundreds of studios.

Polish cuisine shares many similarities with other Central European cuisines, especially German and Austrian [] as well as Jewish , [] Belarusian , Ukrainian , Russian , [] French and Italian culinary traditions.

Festive meals such as the meatless Christmas Eve dinner Wigilia or Easter breakfast could take days to prepare in their entirety.

The side dishes are usually potatoes, rice or kasza cereals. Other frequently consumed beverages include various mineral waters and juices, soft drinks popularized by the fast-food chains since the late 20th century, as well as buttermilk , soured milk and kefir.

The golden era of football in Poland occurred throughout the s and went on until the early s when the Polish national football team achieved their best results in any FIFA World Cup competitions finishing 3rd place in the and the tournaments.

The team won a gold medal in football at the Summer Olympics and two silver medals, in and in He won the Canadian Grand Prix and now does rallying following a crash in that left him unable to drive F1 cars.

Poland has made a distinctive mark in motorcycle speedway racing thanks to Tomasz Gollob , a highly successful Polish rider. The top Ekstraliga division has one of the highest average attendances for any sport in Poland.

The national speedway team of Poland , one of the major teams in international speedway, [] has won the Speedway World Team Cup championships three times consecutively, in , , and No team has ever managed such feat.

Poles made significant achievements in mountaineering, in particular, in the Himalayas and the winter ascending of the eight-thousanders.

Polish mountains are one of the tourist attractions of the country. Hiking, climbing, skiing and mountain biking and attract numerous tourists every year from all over the world.

Fashion was always an important aspect of Poland and its national identity. Poland belongs to one of the most fashionable and best-dressed countries in the world.

Moreover, several Polish designers and stylists left a lifelong legacy of beauty inventions and cosmetics , which are still in use nowadays.

Throughout history, the clothing styles in Poland often varied due to foreign influence, especially from the neighbouring countries and the Middle East.

Because of its geographical position, Poland was metaphorically referred to as a trade route that linked Western Europe with the Ottoman Empire , Crimean Khanate and Persia.

This allowed the Poles to absorb several habits, which were present in the Middle East at the time. The high-class nobility and magnates wore attire that somewhat resembled oriental styles.

Wealthy Polish aristocrats also kept captive Tatars and Janissaries in their courts; this affected the national dress. The Polish national dress as well as the fashion and etiquette of Poland also reached the royal court at Versailles in the 18th century.

In the early 20th century, the underdeveloped fashion and cosmetics industry in Congress Poland was heavily dominated by western styles, mostly from the United Kingdom and the United States.

This inspired Polish beautician Maksymilian Faktorowicz to seek employment abroad and create a line of cosmetics company called Max Factor in California.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the dance, see Polska dance. For other uses, see Rzeczpospolita Polska disambiguation.

For other uses, see Poland disambiguation. Show map of Europe. History of Poland — and Partitions of Poland. History of Poland —present and enlargement of the European Union.

Foreign relations of Poland and List of diplomatic missions of Poland. Administrative divisions of Poland. Energy in Poland and Coal mining in Poland.

Demographics of Poland , Demographic history of Poland , and Polish diaspora. List of cities and towns in Poland. Largest cities or towns in Poland Central Statistical Office population report for Polish language and Languages of Poland.

Religions in Poland Roman Catholicism. Ballade form invented by Chopin. Inspired by poems of Adam Mickiewicz. Polish literature and History of philosophy in Poland.

Cinema of Poland and Theatre of Poland. Television in Poland and Media of Poland. Video gaming in Poland. The percentages of ethnic Poles and of minorities depend on how we count.

Dziewanowski has noted that "if Polish forces fighting in the east and west were added to the resistance fighters, Poland had the fourth largest Allied army in the war after the USSR, the U.

The confusion often stems from the fact that as war progressed, some resistance movements grew larger — and other diminished. Polish territories were mostly freed from Nazi German control in the years —45, eliminating the need for their respective anti-Nazi partisan forces in Poland although the cursed soldiers continued to fight against the Soviets.

Several sources note that Polish Armia Krajowa was the largest resistance movement in Nazi-occupied Europe. After that point, the numbers of Soviet partisans and Yugoslav partisans begun growing rapidly.

The numbers of Soviet partisans quickly caught up and were very similar to that of the Polish resistance. Number and demographical-social structure.

Folia Geographica Socio-Oeconomica in Polish. National Census of Population and Housing ] in Polish. Retrieved 31 May The Force of Faith in Social-movement Activism.

Retrieved 9 September — via Google Books. Archived from the original PDF on 28 October Retrieved 12 August Size and structure and vital statistics in Poland by territorial division in As of December 31".

Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". Retrieved 9 October Retrieved 15 September United Nations Development Programme.

A Concise History of Poland First ed. A History , Pimlico , p. The price of freedom: Retrieved 13 August Retrieved 20 September Retrieved 14 April — via Multishoring.

Stephan Faris 27 November Retrieved 14 April Retrieved 27 August Retrieved 9 April Retrieved 24 April Archived from the original on 18 March Retrieved 9 November Retrieved 16 July Archived from the original on 17 July Archived from the original on 12 March Archived from the original on 24 April Retrieved 6 February Do Rzeczy in Polish.

Retrieved 9 January Retrieved 26 October A History of Poland. Central European University Press, pp. The union of Lublin, Polish federalism in the golden age.

The Polish Biographical Dictionary: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland. A History of East European Jews.

Central European University Press. Timelines of World History. In Frucht, Richard C. An Introduction to the People, Lands, and Culture. Retrieved 8 April At the same time, when most of Europe was decimated by the Black Death, Poland developed quickly and reached the levels of the wealthiest countries of the West in its economy and culture.

Mediterranean Studies Group at Hitotsubashi University. Archived from the original PDF on 5 June Political Realities and Social Constrains. In Howard Louthan; Gary B.

Negotiating Religious Difference in Central Europe, — A Concise History of Poland. Archived from the original on 8 July Retrieved 18 June Poland and its fate, to ; p.

Stalinism and Nazism Compared. Hidden Systems that deliver Unforgettable Customer Service. BoD — Books on Demand.

Poland and the Poles in the Second World War. Zaloga; Richard Hook The Polish Army — Retrieved 6 March — via Google Books. Historical Dictionary of Poland, — Eastern Europe to A Question of Honor.

Grenkevich in The Soviet Partisan Movement, — A Critical Historiographical Analysis, p. Retrieved 1 March The number of Jewish victims is estimated at 2,9 million.

Current estimate is roughly 2,, victims of German occupation. Polskie straty to 76— tys. Institute of National Remembrance. Poland in the geographical centre of Europe.

Archived from the original PDF on Polish Academy of Sciences. Non-Jewish Victims of the Shoah. The Bobbs-Merrill Company, PWN Encyklopedia in Polish.

Archived from the original on 1 October Retrieved 11 July From Solidarity to Sell-Out: The Restoration of Capitalism in Poland. Retrieved 6 May Archived from the original PDF on 25 March Retrieved 8 July Retrieved 28 July Warsaw, 19 September Conservatives secure decisive win".

The Reconstruction of Nations: Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus, — Commonwealth became the breadbasket of Western Europe, wrote Timothy Snyder, thanks to the presence of fertile southeastern regions of Podolia and east Galicia.

Retrieved 1 January Poland is home to 9, lakes. Finland is the only European nation with a higher density of lakes than Poland. Jewish Poland — legends of Origin: Ethnopoetics and Legendary Chronicles.

Wayne State University Press. Retrieved 14 September Retrieved 23 November Archived from the original on 31 October Retrieved 24 November Archived from the original PDF on 26 April Retrieved 4 May World production and gross domestic production of main pork-producing or exporting countries.

Directorate-General for Agriculture and Rural Development. Archived from the original on 8 February A real kingdom of birds is the Biebrza Basin, its wildlife making it one of the most unique areas in Poland.

Oficyna In Puls; Retrieved 4 February Historia Polski, — [ History of Poland, — ] in Polish. Centrum Praw Kobiet in Polish. Archived from the original on 2 March Archived from the original on 30 December Trafficking of Women World map PNG file.

Best results worldwide for two locations both in Europe including Poland. Belarus mistreats its Polish minority". Archived from the original PDF on 1 October Retrieved 26 September Retrieved 2 November Retrieved 12 December Military Modernization Program Underfunded".

Retrieved 14 December Archived from the original on 22 August Retrieved 25 April Ekonomia Unii Europejskiej Internet Archive.

Banking Sector in Poland Internet Archive. Retrieved 6 November Comparatively, in the United States there are The World Bank Group.

Retrieved 25 April — via Google Books. Retrieved 23 January Retrieved 3 June Retrieved 18 January Retrieved 28 October Archived from the original on 13 September Central European Financial Observer.

Retrieved 17 June Ranking based on accumulated results of researches that had been conducted from to Serwis informacyjny Dziennik Budowy.

Wprost Rankingi in Polish. Retrieved 11 December Retrieved 12 October Retrieved 7 May Lonely Planet — via Google Books. Archived from the original PDF on 9 July Retrieved 25 December A century of X-rays and radioactivity in medicine: From alchemy to the present day — the choice of biographies of Polish scientists.

Retrieved 6 April Polish Information and Foreign Investment Agency. Archived from the original on 19 February Retrieved 22 November Retrieved 28 September Retrieved 12 April Retrieved 10 February In former satellite countries like Hungary or Poland, knowledge of Russian dwindled rapidly — to be replaced by English and German.

Archived from the original PDF on 4 September Retrieved 19 January XVII map on p. Retrieved 9 February III , Tabela 3. Labuda, Mieszko I, chap.

Instytut Historyczny Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego. The origins to Retrieved 5 April Paristwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe, , pp. Retrieved 27 March The Cambridge History of Poland.

Archived from the original on 17 May Archived from the original on 14 February Retrieved 14 February May be distributed freely.

Archived from the original on 11 December Archived from the original on 28 November Archived from the original on 2 January Retrieved 28 June The Polish health care system, An introduction: Retrieved 26 April Retrieved 17 July Retrieved 17 September Retrieved 13 June Piotr Metz 7 June Archived from the original PDF on 29 May Retrieved 13 May Retrieved 7 January Retrieved 31 August Retrieved 31 August — via Google Books.

The New York Times. Retrieved 1 December Retrieved 9 December Archived from the original PDF on 23 June Retrieved 23 April Archived from the original on 8 November Retrieved 10 December Retrieved 24 May Archived from the original on 21 August The Phenomenon of the Holy Cross Sermons".

Trade and Urban Development in Poland: Parafia Ewangelicko-Reformowana w Warszawie. Propaganda and the Jesuit Baroque. University of California Press.

The Encyclopedia of the Novel. Retrieved 24 May — via Google Books. Archived from the original on 4 April Small Truths Sharply Etched". The History of Distribution, Exhibition and Reception".

Retrieved 6 April — via www. The Bradt Travel Guide 2, Belarus, p. Archived from the original on 27 March Retrieved 9 March Retrieved 6 June Archived from the original on 31 May Centrum Polonijne w Jorba Linda, California.

Archived from the original on 30 November Archived from the original on 30 September Retrieved 13 October Poland win Speedway World Cup".

Retrieved 18 December Archived from the original on 28 October Retrieved 9 September Polish fashion chain moves into BHS flagship store". A Pole who created a cosmetic empire].

Interia Kobieta in Polish. Polskie Radio in Polish. The History of Max Factor". Retrieved 24 May — via content.

Retrieved 8 August Strefa Biznesu in Polish. Retrieved 5 July Cultural Demographic Economic Military Postal. Anthem Coat of arms Flag list Polonia Orders and decorations.

Links to related articles. It allow to create list of users contirbution. Assignment does not change access privileges to resource content.

Instytut Badawczy Lesnictwa, Warszawa. Keywords Czechy prywatyzacja reprywatyzacja lasy Wegry lesnictwo Slowacja Niemcy Czechy prywatyzacja reprywatyzacja lasy Wegry lesnictwo Slowacja Niemcy.

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Niemcy Slowacja Video

niemcy slowacja The Bradt Travel Guide 2, Belarus, p. Retrieved 18 June The massacres were part of a vicious ethnic clensing campaign waged by Ukrainian nationalists ВЈ10 free no deposit mobile casino 2019 the local Polish population in the German-occupied territories of eastern Poland. The Masurian Lake District is the largest of the four and 3. liga live im internet much of north-eastern Poland. Articles containing Kashubian-language text CS1 Polish-language sources pl All articles with dead external links Articles with dead external links from December Articles with permanently dead external links Webarchive template wayback links Articles with German-language external links Articles with Polish-language external links Articles with német kupa external links from March CS1 maint: Niemcy slowacja Constitution of Poland wo ist die railroad the supreme law in contemporary Poland, and the Polish legal system is based on the principle of civil rights, governed by the jovana jaksic of Civil Law. Poland has 70 mountains over 2, metres 6, feet in elevation, all in the Tatras. Retrieved 9 December Stalinism niemcy slowacja Nazism Compared. Ina new Polish uprising against Russian rule began. However, the transition from paganism was formel 1 2019 ferrari a bitte spiele and instantaneous process for the rest of the population as evident from the pagan reaction of the s. The most renowned star of the silent film era was Polish actress Pola Negri.

Alexandre Tansman lived in Paris but had strong connections with Poland. Traditional Polish folk music has had a major effect on the works of many well-known Polish composers, and no more so than on Fryderyk Chopin, a widely recognised national hero of the arts.

It is largely thanks to him that such pieces gained great popularity throughout Europe during the 19th century. Nowadays the most distinctive folk music can be heard in the towns and villages of the mountainous south, particularly in the region surrounding the winter resort town of Zakopane.

Today Poland has a very active music scene, with the jazz and metal genres being particularly popular among the contemporary populace.

Polish jazz musicians such as Krzysztof Komeda created a unique style, which was most famous in the s and s and continues to be popular to this day.

Art in Poland has always reflected European trends while maintaining its unique character. Perhaps the most prominent and internationally admired Polish artist was Tamara de Lempicka , who specialized in the style of Art Deco and whose paintings are often collected by celebrities and well-known personas.

Prior to the 19th century only Daniel Schultz and Italian-born Marcello Bacciarelli had the privilege of being recognized abroad.

Within historically-orientated circles, Henryk Siemiradzki dominated with his monumental Academic Art and ancient Roman theme. Since the inter-war years, Polish art and documentary photography has enjoyed worldwide fame and in the s the Polish School of Posters was formed.

Although not Polish, the work had a strong influence on Polish culture and has been often associated with Polish identity.

Polish cities and towns reflect a whole spectrum of European architectural styles. Romanesque architecture is represented by St.

Nonetheless, a number of ancient structures has survived: The centre of Kazimierz Dolny on the Vistula is a good example of a well-preserved medieval town.

The second half of the 17th century is marked by baroque architecture. The profuse decorations of the Branicki Palace in Warsaw are characteristic of the rococo style.

Traditional folk architecture in the villages and small towns scattered across the vast Polish countryside is characterized by its extensive use of wood as the primary building material.

Some of the best preserved and oldest structures include wooden churches , and tserkvas primarily located across southern Poland in the Beskids and Bieszczady regions of the Carpathian mountains.

Within Polish literary customs, it is appropriate to highlight the published works concerning Poland not written by ethnic Poles.

The most vivid example is Gallus Anonymus , a foreign monk and the first chronicler who described Poland and its territories. The first documented phrase in the Polish language reads " Day ut ia pobrusa, a ti poziwai " "Let me grind, and you take a rest" , reflecting the culture of early Poland.

Most medieval records in Latin and the Old Polish language contain the oldest extant manuscript of fine Polish prose entitled the Holy Cross Sermons , as well as the earliest Polish-language bible, the so-called Bible of Queen Sophia.

A Polish writer who utilized Latin as his principal tool of expression was Klemens "Ianicius" Janicki , one of the most renowned Latin poets of his time, who was laureled by the Pope.

Throughout this period Poland also experienced the early stages of Protestant Reformation. During the Polish Baroque era, the Jesuits greatly influenced Polish literature and literary techniques, often relying on God and religious matters.

Jan Chryzostom Pasek , also a respected baroque writer, is mostly remembered for his tales and memoirs reflecting sarmatian culture in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

Nicholas Wisdom , which was a milestone for Polish literature. A Polish prose poet of the highest order, Joseph Conrad , the son of dramatist Apollo Korzeniowski , won worldwide fame with his English-language novels and stories that are informed with elements of the Polish national experience.

The history of Polish cinema is as long as history of cinematography itself. Over decades, Poland has produced outstanding directors, film producers, cartoonists and actors that achieved world fame, especially in Hollywood.

Moreover, Polish inventors played an important role in the development of world cinematography and modern-day television. In , Jan Szczepanik , obtained a British patent for his Telectroscope.

This prototype of television could easily transmit image and sound, thus allowing a live remote view. Following the invention of appropriate apparatus and technological development in the upcoming years, his then-impossible concept became reality.

Polish cinema developed rapidly in the interwar period. The most renowned star of the silent film era was Polish actress Pola Negri. During this time, the Yiddish cinema also evolved in Poland.

Films in the Yiddish language with Jewish themes, such as The Dybbuk , played an important part in pre-war Polish cinematography.

Poland has a number of major media outlets, chief among which are the national television channels. Poland has several hour news channels: Rzeczpospolita , founded in is one of the oldest newspapers still in operation in the country.

Poland has also emerged as a major hub for video game developers in Europe, with the country now being home to hundreds of studios.

Polish cuisine shares many similarities with other Central European cuisines, especially German and Austrian [] as well as Jewish , [] Belarusian , Ukrainian , Russian , [] French and Italian culinary traditions.

Festive meals such as the meatless Christmas Eve dinner Wigilia or Easter breakfast could take days to prepare in their entirety.

The side dishes are usually potatoes, rice or kasza cereals. Other frequently consumed beverages include various mineral waters and juices, soft drinks popularized by the fast-food chains since the late 20th century, as well as buttermilk , soured milk and kefir.

The golden era of football in Poland occurred throughout the s and went on until the early s when the Polish national football team achieved their best results in any FIFA World Cup competitions finishing 3rd place in the and the tournaments.

The team won a gold medal in football at the Summer Olympics and two silver medals, in and in He won the Canadian Grand Prix and now does rallying following a crash in that left him unable to drive F1 cars.

Poland has made a distinctive mark in motorcycle speedway racing thanks to Tomasz Gollob , a highly successful Polish rider. The top Ekstraliga division has one of the highest average attendances for any sport in Poland.

The national speedway team of Poland , one of the major teams in international speedway, [] has won the Speedway World Team Cup championships three times consecutively, in , , and No team has ever managed such feat.

Poles made significant achievements in mountaineering, in particular, in the Himalayas and the winter ascending of the eight-thousanders.

Polish mountains are one of the tourist attractions of the country. Hiking, climbing, skiing and mountain biking and attract numerous tourists every year from all over the world.

Fashion was always an important aspect of Poland and its national identity. Poland belongs to one of the most fashionable and best-dressed countries in the world.

Moreover, several Polish designers and stylists left a lifelong legacy of beauty inventions and cosmetics , which are still in use nowadays.

Throughout history, the clothing styles in Poland often varied due to foreign influence, especially from the neighbouring countries and the Middle East.

Because of its geographical position, Poland was metaphorically referred to as a trade route that linked Western Europe with the Ottoman Empire , Crimean Khanate and Persia.

This allowed the Poles to absorb several habits, which were present in the Middle East at the time. The high-class nobility and magnates wore attire that somewhat resembled oriental styles.

Wealthy Polish aristocrats also kept captive Tatars and Janissaries in their courts; this affected the national dress.

The Polish national dress as well as the fashion and etiquette of Poland also reached the royal court at Versailles in the 18th century.

In the early 20th century, the underdeveloped fashion and cosmetics industry in Congress Poland was heavily dominated by western styles, mostly from the United Kingdom and the United States.

This inspired Polish beautician Maksymilian Faktorowicz to seek employment abroad and create a line of cosmetics company called Max Factor in California.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the dance, see Polska dance. For other uses, see Rzeczpospolita Polska disambiguation. For other uses, see Poland disambiguation.

Show map of Europe. History of Poland — and Partitions of Poland. History of Poland —present and enlargement of the European Union. Foreign relations of Poland and List of diplomatic missions of Poland.

Administrative divisions of Poland. Energy in Poland and Coal mining in Poland. Demographics of Poland , Demographic history of Poland , and Polish diaspora.

List of cities and towns in Poland. Largest cities or towns in Poland Central Statistical Office population report for Polish language and Languages of Poland.

Religions in Poland Roman Catholicism. Ballade form invented by Chopin. Inspired by poems of Adam Mickiewicz. Polish literature and History of philosophy in Poland.

Cinema of Poland and Theatre of Poland. Television in Poland and Media of Poland. Video gaming in Poland. The percentages of ethnic Poles and of minorities depend on how we count.

Dziewanowski has noted that "if Polish forces fighting in the east and west were added to the resistance fighters, Poland had the fourth largest Allied army in the war after the USSR, the U.

The confusion often stems from the fact that as war progressed, some resistance movements grew larger — and other diminished.

Polish territories were mostly freed from Nazi German control in the years —45, eliminating the need for their respective anti-Nazi partisan forces in Poland although the cursed soldiers continued to fight against the Soviets.

Several sources note that Polish Armia Krajowa was the largest resistance movement in Nazi-occupied Europe. After that point, the numbers of Soviet partisans and Yugoslav partisans begun growing rapidly.

The numbers of Soviet partisans quickly caught up and were very similar to that of the Polish resistance. Number and demographical-social structure.

Folia Geographica Socio-Oeconomica in Polish. National Census of Population and Housing ] in Polish. Retrieved 31 May The Force of Faith in Social-movement Activism.

Retrieved 9 September — via Google Books. Archived from the original PDF on 28 October Retrieved 12 August Size and structure and vital statistics in Poland by territorial division in As of December 31".

Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". Retrieved 9 October Retrieved 15 September United Nations Development Programme.

A Concise History of Poland First ed. A History , Pimlico , p. The price of freedom: Retrieved 13 August Retrieved 20 September Retrieved 14 April — via Multishoring.

Stephan Faris 27 November Retrieved 14 April Retrieved 27 August Retrieved 9 April Retrieved 24 April Archived from the original on 18 March Retrieved 9 November Retrieved 16 July Archived from the original on 17 July Archived from the original on 12 March Archived from the original on 24 April Retrieved 6 February Do Rzeczy in Polish.

Retrieved 9 January Retrieved 26 October A History of Poland. Central European University Press, pp. The union of Lublin, Polish federalism in the golden age.

The Polish Biographical Dictionary: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland. A History of East European Jews.

Central European University Press. Timelines of World History. In Frucht, Richard C. An Introduction to the People, Lands, and Culture.

Retrieved 8 April At the same time, when most of Europe was decimated by the Black Death, Poland developed quickly and reached the levels of the wealthiest countries of the West in its economy and culture.

Mediterranean Studies Group at Hitotsubashi University. Archived from the original PDF on 5 June Political Realities and Social Constrains.

In Howard Louthan; Gary B. Negotiating Religious Difference in Central Europe, — A Concise History of Poland.

Archived from the original on 8 July Retrieved 18 June Poland and its fate, to ; p. Stalinism and Nazism Compared. Hidden Systems that deliver Unforgettable Customer Service.

BoD — Books on Demand. Poland and the Poles in the Second World War. Zaloga; Richard Hook The Polish Army — Retrieved 6 March — via Google Books.

Historical Dictionary of Poland, — Eastern Europe to A Question of Honor. Grenkevich in The Soviet Partisan Movement, — A Critical Historiographical Analysis, p.

Retrieved 1 March The number of Jewish victims is estimated at 2,9 million. Current estimate is roughly 2,, victims of German occupation. Polskie straty to 76— tys.

Institute of National Remembrance. Poland in the geographical centre of Europe. Archived from the original PDF on Polish Academy of Sciences.

Non-Jewish Victims of the Shoah. The Bobbs-Merrill Company, PWN Encyklopedia in Polish. Archived from the original on 1 October Retrieved 11 July From Solidarity to Sell-Out: The Restoration of Capitalism in Poland.

Retrieved 6 May Archived from the original PDF on 25 March Retrieved 8 July Retrieved 28 July Warsaw, 19 September Conservatives secure decisive win".

The Reconstruction of Nations: Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus, — Commonwealth became the breadbasket of Western Europe, wrote Timothy Snyder, thanks to the presence of fertile southeastern regions of Podolia and east Galicia.

Retrieved 1 January Poland is home to 9, lakes. Finland is the only European nation with a higher density of lakes than Poland.

Jewish Poland — legends of Origin: Ethnopoetics and Legendary Chronicles. Wayne State University Press.

Retrieved 14 September Retrieved 23 November Archived from the original on 31 October Retrieved 24 November Archived from the original PDF on 26 April Retrieved 4 May World production and gross domestic production of main pork-producing or exporting countries.

Directorate-General for Agriculture and Rural Development. Archived from the original on 8 February A real kingdom of birds is the Biebrza Basin, its wildlife making it one of the most unique areas in Poland.

Oficyna In Puls; Retrieved 4 February Historia Polski, — [ History of Poland, — ] in Polish. Centrum Praw Kobiet in Polish.

Archived from the original on 2 March Archived from the original on 30 December Trafficking of Women World map PNG file.

Best results worldwide for two locations both in Europe including Poland. Belarus mistreats its Polish minority".

Archived from the original PDF on 1 October Retrieved 26 September Retrieved 2 November Retrieved 12 December Military Modernization Program Underfunded".

Retrieved 14 December Archived from the original on 22 August Retrieved 25 April Ekonomia Unii Europejskiej Internet Archive.

Banking Sector in Poland Internet Archive. Retrieved 6 November Comparatively, in the United States there are The World Bank Group.

Retrieved 25 April — via Google Books. Retrieved 23 January Retrieved 3 June Retrieved 18 January Retrieved 28 October Archived from the original on 13 September Central European Financial Observer.

Retrieved 17 June Ranking based on accumulated results of researches that had been conducted from to Serwis informacyjny Dziennik Budowy.

Wprost Rankingi in Polish. Retrieved 11 December Retrieved 12 October Retrieved 7 May Lonely Planet — via Google Books.

Archived from the original PDF on 9 July Retrieved 25 December A century of X-rays and radioactivity in medicine: From alchemy to the present day — the choice of biographies of Polish scientists.

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A Pole who created a cosmetic empire]. Interia Kobieta in Polish. Polskie Radio in Polish. The History of Max Factor". Retrieved 24 May — via content.

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